Historical vestiges from the park’s neighboring settlements

The cultural historical landscape in the Măcin Mountains National Park is represented by many archaeological sites, taken out of anonymity as a result of many excavations done in time by numerous societies or archaeological institutes, the Tulcea Eco-Museum Research Institute, etc. They have provided proof for the existence of human settlements in the region since the Stone Age.

Archaeological research has highlighted the existence of Chalcolithic objects belonging to the Gumelniţa culture (known especially for the Thinker statue of Cernavodă, belonging to the Hamangia culture). Vestiges of this culture have been discovered in Luncaviţa in the point called “at the Fortress (la cetăţuie)” and near the Văcăreni village. Traces of the Gumelniţa culture – pottery rests – are also found at Garvăn.

In Garvăn there was also a Geto-Dacian settlement and there are the ruins of the Roman-Byzantine Fortress Dinogetia (portions of the wall, defense towers, the main gate – dating from the 4th century), and other early feudal settlements (Daco-Roman tradition pottery, agricultural tool and weapons, monetary treasures, jewelry, food deposits). The fortress has been built during Emperor Diocletian (284-305), with the purpose of strengthening the Danube border of the Roman Empire, as a defence line against migrating populations.

Other vestiges of the Gumelniţa Neolithic culture have been discovered in Jijila, Văcăreni, Garvăn. On the shore of Jijila Lake excavations have discovered settlement traces going back to the Iron Age.

In Văcăreni a coin treasure has been discovered, containing Ducats issued during Mircea the Elder. It is supposed to have been buried here since 1436 after the battle of Nicopolis, in which Mircea the Elder, the Voivode of Walachia, took part alongside Crusaders.

In Nifon two Roman monuments dedicated to the Roman goddess Diana have been found, the oldest dating from 170 A.D.

In Măcin the tiles of a Roman aqueduct have been discovered. The Roman Fortress Troesmis was one of the main fortresses of the Getae, being mentioned by ancient sources referring to the military conflicts between Lysimachus and Dromichaete (the beginning of the 3rd century B.C.). The poet Ovid mentions Troesmis as an old fortress (Vetus arx), which Pomponius Flaccus conquered from the Getae and gave to King Rheuscuporis of the Thracians (12 A.D.). Other testimonies of history and culture in Măcin are the old inn built 300-400 years ago and the mosque, architectural monument built in the 18th century.

Other places of worship, spirituality and ethnic continuity are: the Măcin mosque, the Isaccea mosque, the Basilica with a crypt (martirium) in Niculiţel, St. Athanasius Church in Niculiţel, and the Paleo-Christian Church with a crypt also in Niculiţel.